While her full study is ongoing, we are thrilled to be able to share this summary which indicates that the Zentangle Method is a highly effective tool for supporting and nourishing a state of mindfulness.
We are grateful to Meredith, her staff and St. Joseph College for their time, precision and professionalism as they continue to accumulate important data on the benefits of the Zentangle Method.
Here is Meredith's summary complete with reference notes:
Zentangle: Evaluation of a Mindfulness Activity
A recent pilot study concluded that Zentangle is a mindfulness activity (1). Also, when comparing a group of post test scores after 1 hour of Zentangle instruction, including 10 minutes of independent practice, the participants experienced mindfulness process post test scores equivalent to a group who participated in a 1 hour a week 16 week mindfulness focused treatment (2). Thus, the Zentangle process appears to be an efficient way to create a state of mindfulness. Consistent with the increasing amount of recent mindfulness research, the practice of Zentangle as a mindfulness activity could benefit the individual both mentally and physically. Such benefits include but are not limited to psychological wellbeing (3-6), decreased mental health symptoms, such as depression (7), anxiety (8), and stress (9 -11). In addition to being useful in the treatment of chronic pain (12), fibromyalgia (13-14), improving brain function and immune response (15), blood pressure (16) and insomnia (17).
1. Yuhas, M. & Cooper, A. B. (2012). Zentangle: Evaluation of a mindfulness activity. Unpublished manuscript, Saint Joseph College, West Hartford, CT.
2. Erisman, S. M. & Roener, L. (2011, October 11). A preliminary investigation of the process of mindfulness. Mindfulness. doi: 10.1007/s12671-011-0078-x
3. Nyklicek, I., & Kuijpers, K. F. (2008). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological well-being and quality of life: Is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35 (3), 331-340. doi: 10.1007/s12160-008-9030-2
4. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 (4), 822-848. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062
5. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.117.3.497
6. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.68
7. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/reoccurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68 (4), 615-623. doi:10.1037//0022-006X.68.4.615
8. Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22 (4), 716-721. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.07.005
9. Shapario, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21 (6), 581-599. DOI: 10.1023/A:1018700829825
10. Shapiro, S. L. Brown, K., Biegel, G. (2007). Self-care for health care professionals: Effects of MSRB on mental well-being of counseling psychology students. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1, 105-115. doi:10.1037/1931-39220.127.116.11
11. Oman, D., Shapirio, S. L., Thorenen, C. E., Plante, T. G., Flinders, T, (2008). Meditation lowers stress and supports forgiveness among college students: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American College Health, 56 (5), 569-578. doi:10.3200/JACH.56.5.569-578
12. Kabit-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R., Sellers, W. (1986) The impact of a meditation-based program for the self-regulation of chronic pain: Treatment outcomes and compliance. Clinical Journal of Pain, 2, 129-73. doi: 10.1007/BF00845519
13. Kaplin, K. H., Goldenberg D., & Galvin-Nadeau, M. (1993) The impact of a meditation-based stress reduction program on fibromyalgia. General Hospital Psychiatry, 15, 284-9. Retrieved from http://www.fammed.wisc.edu/sites/default/files//webfm-uploads/documents/outreach/mindfulness/res-mindfulness-fibromyalgia.pdf
14. Astin, J. A., Berman, B. M., Bausell, B., Lee, L., Hochberg, M., & Forys, K. L. (2003). The efficacy of mindfulness meditation plus qigong movement therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rheumatology, 30 (10), 2257-2262. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2009.03.009
15. Davidson, R. J., Kabit-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rozenkrantz, M., Muller, D. & Santorelli, S. F. (2003). Alterations in the brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychometric Medicine, 65, 564-570. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3
16. Sudsuang, R. Chentanez, V., Veluvan, K. (1991). The effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol, and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume, and reaction time. Physiological Behavior, 50, 543-8. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(91)90543-W
17. Ong, J. & Sholtes, D. (2010). A mindfulness-based approach to the treatment of insomnia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66 (11), 1175-84. doi:10.1002/jclp.20736